Snake Venom Study Yield Insights for the development of therapies for cardiovascular disease and cancer

To be considered a book of the week, the work of the team is ranked in the top 1 % of the documents considered by the JBC editorial board in terms of meaning and weight. Other collaborators Guo Ding, Satoshi Nishimura, Kazuya Hokamura, Koji Eto, Hirokazu Kashiwagi, Yoshiaki Tomiyama, Yutaka Yatom and Kazuo Umemura.Intrigued by the recent discovery that then the elements of snake venom can promote irregular aggregation of platelets – the type that causes blood clots and stroke – Inoue and Ozaki’s team set up in 1997 to better understand the molecular basis of these chemical reactions . They hoped that all they have learned could be applied to research of new therapies for irregular blood clotting caused by the disease lexapro and libido.

Under normal conditions, platelets are activated to become sticky when blood vessels are injured, and stick together naturally stops bleeding. But, irregular platelet aggregation induced by the disease can lead to dangerous clots or even kick a clot or bursts in a vessel that carries oxygen and nutrients to the brain zoloft weight loss.

Recent surveys conducted by the team, published in the JBC online July 4, hinged on the production and study of genetically modified mouse embryos that lacked the protein platelet receptor CLEC-2 paxil litigation. Ultimately, the experiments showed that CLEC-2 is not only necessary for blood clotting, but also necessary for the development of another type of ship, including the lymphatic vessels that carry fluid away from tissues and prevent swelling or swelling.

The finding that platelets not only play a role in blood clotting, but also in the development of blood vessels that allow tumors to develop was quite unexpected and paves the way for further research on the role or roles of platelets, said Katsu-Suzuki Inoue, Associate Professor at the University of Yamanashi who oversaw the work of the team of 13 people in the laboratory of Professor Yukio Ozaki cr gain paxil weight.

When a blood clot, or thrombus, forms during the normal repair process of the body is doing its job, says Suzuki-Inoue. But, thrombotic diseases, such as heart attack and stroke are the leading causes of death in developed countries zoloft kava kava. Understanding and manipulating the underlying chemical reactions could help save many lives.

After six years of research and collaborations with researchers from the UK, the team in 2006, discovered how rhodocytin – a molecule purified from the venom of the viper in Southeast Asia rhodastoma Calloselasma well – it binds to the protein CLEC -2 receptor on the platelet surface, stimulating platelets to clot with others like her.

In 2000, another group of investigators came across a protein on the platelet surface and nicknamed C-type lectin-like receptor 2, or CLEC-2. At that time, it was unclear how CLEC-2 was produced or what was his job, but the team suspected that would further study.

The Japanese team is the subject of a chemistry journal, the Book of the week organic are optimistic about the inhibition of a protein on the surface of blood cells known as platelets can fight both irregular blood clotting and the spread of some cancers the whole body.

To protect the immune system, cancer cells send a chemical, podoplanin, which binds to the protein CLEC-2 receptor on platelets, platelets called to come together and form a protective barrier around the cancer cells. Once wrapped, the cells cancer are not detected by the immune system and are able to bind to the lining of blood vessels’ inner and spread, or metastasis, through the body, he said.

And ‘well known that tumors generate blood vessels to promote their growth, and it is possible that the formation of lymphatic vessels may also contribute to the spread of cancer in the body, says Osamu Inoue, an assistant professor at the University of Yamanashi.

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Using a mouse model, the team in 2008 showed that blocking the tumor protein podoplanin to bind to platelet receptor CLEC-2 protein may prevent metastasis of lung cancer.

Podoplanin, Hirashima said, is also expressed on the surface of certain types of lymphatic cells and is known to play a role in the development of lymphatic vessels: These results suggest that the interaction between CLEC-2 and podoplanin in lymphatic vessels is necessary for the separation of blood and lymph vessels.

Snake venom contains many toxins that target proteins in platelets, said Yonchol Shin, an associate professor at Kogakuin University who specializes in snake toxins. Others, like the one we focused on this research, can activate platelets, resulting in the formation of blood clots. The identification of molecular targets of many of these toxins has made an enormous contribution to our understanding of platelet activation and related diseases.

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